Also known as 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione. ATD is an aromatase inhibitor included in various bodybuilding supplements designed to reduce estrogen and boost natural testosterone.
ATD has been used extensively in zoological investigations (“Influence of gonadal hormones on the development of parental behavior in adult virgin prairie voles” is a representative title)—but human data is lacking. The only relevant research on A”TD is two small studies on Novedex XT, a supplement that contains two other ingredients as well.
Nonetheless, it apparently works and is not known to be toxic. Despite the limited amount of human research, a patent application for ATD has been filed for—among other things—the improvement of male fertility and athletic performance.
Also known as “Bitter Gourd”. Bitter Melon (Momordica chirantia) is used as both a food and traditional medicine in Asia/Southeast Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. Bitter melon has hypoglycemic effects, due to the ability of various components to inhibit alpha-glucosidase activity (which slows carbohydrate digestion), improve insulin signalling and reduce insulin resistance. Other elements have anti-tumor and anti-viral activity.
Green tomato extract is a source of nicotine and “nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists”. Certain supplement marketers claim it enhances muscle growth, although there is zero science to back this up.
A medicinal plant (Valeriana officinalis) used to relieve anxiety and promote sleep. Valerian is sold as a standalone supplement, as well as in combination with other herbs such as hops.
See “Valerian Root: Benefits and Side Effects of This Natural Sleep Aid!” for more information.