Also known as AKG or AAKG. Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate is a salt composed of 2 molecules of the conditionally-essential amino acid L-arginine, plus alpha-ketoglutarate, a Krebs Cycle intermediate and nitrogen transporter (via conversion to L-glutamate). AKG is frequently used in nitric oxide (NO) boosting bodybuilding supplements to increase muscle pump during workouts. See Paul’s review, “An Introduction to Nitric Oxide Supplements” for more information.
Other chemical names: L-Arginine 2-oxopentanedioate
A conditionally-essential amino acid that’s a component of proteins, substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and urea cycle intermediate. Experimentally, supplemental L-arginine has been shown to increase resting (but not exercise-induced) growth hormone production and improve exercise tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure.
A member of the carotenoid family of antioxidants with provitamin A activity. The vitamin A of alpha-carotene is approx. one-half that of beta-carotene, the best-known carotenoid in the family. Like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene is most abundant in orange/yellow vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkin and winter squash.
A large group of red/yellow/orange fat-soluble plant pigments that exert a variety of beneficial health effects. Food sources of carotenoids include carrots, spinach, pumpkin, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, watermelon and kale.
For more information, see the Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center.
A derivative of l-carnitine, an amino acid-derived compound that’s essential for fat metabolism.
Acetyl-l-carnitine is marketed as an anti-aging nutrient, as it has neuroprotective effects and—in combination with alpha-lipoic acid—has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and mitochondrial decay associated with aging.
Yerba mate (sometime labeled as mate, or Ilex paraguariensis) is a South American shrub of the holly family. It is commonly used to create a “tea like” infusion called “maté.” A potent antioxidant, it is also a rich source of xanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) and chlorogenic acid-the most likely reason for its inclusion in many popular weight loss products. See the full review for complete details.