F-J - Page 3 of 8 - Glossary

Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA)

An omega-6 fatty acid found in evening primrose, borage, hemp and black currant seed oil.  GLA is also formed naturally in the body from linoleic acid (LA).  Unlike (LA-derived) arachidonic acid (AA), however, GLA has anti-inflammatory activity.  In the body, GLA is converted to dihomogamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) which competes with arachidonic acid and interferes with the formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids from it.  In...

Read More

Fish Oil

A source of pre-formed, omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which play important physiological roles.  Fish oil (either in supplement or food form, such as from fatty fish) has a variety of therapeutic and health benefits, particularly w/respect to preventing cardiovascular disease. Fish oil – in combination with exercise – can also enhance fat loss. See the Fish Oil review for...

Read More

Fucoxanthin

A carotenoid isolated from brown seaweed (such as Undaria pinnatifida, also known as “wakame” in Japan). Fucoxanthin is touted as a weight loss nutrient, on the strength of several studies in rodents that found it reduced body fat when taken alone, as well as with medium chain triglycerides or fish oil.  Human studies, however, are lacking – although there is one that shows dietary fucoxanthin is poorly absorbed. ...

Read More

Indole-3-Carbinol

A phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables (i.e., cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale).  Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is the precursor to diindolylmethane (DIM) – to which it is rapidly metabolized in vivo.  Like DIM, I3C has been investigated for possible prevention/treatment of breast/prostate cancers. For more information, visit the Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information...

Read More

Icariin

The flavonoid compound in Horny Goat Weed thought to be responsible for its aphrodisiac effects.  Icariin is a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, and may act as a sort of “herbal Viagra” to enhance/maintain erectile function.  Cell culture and animal experiments have shown icariin is biologically active, and also has anti-osteoporotic, neuroprotective and antioxidant...

Read More

Horny Goat Weed

The common name given to several species of Epimedium – a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat osteoporosis and impotence (aka “Yin Yang Huo”). Horny Goat Weed is a reputed aphrodisiac, so is often added to “male” supplements designed to increase libido and/or testosterone levels. The primary active compound, icariin, is described as a “testosterone mimetic” in one, small...

Read More