A common term for D-glucose – a simple sugar (monosaccharide) used by the human body as a primary source of fuel. Glucose is ubiquitous in nature, and is found in a wide range of carbohydrates, from table sugar (sucrose = glucose + fructose) and milk sugar (lactose = glucose + galactose), to cellulose (insoluble fiber), starch and glycogen (all of which are glucose polymers).
Dextrose is often used in pre-/post-workout supplements, energy drinks and electrolyte replacement beverages, as a source of quickly digested/absorbed energy. Dextrose may be referred to as “dextrose monohydrate” on certain supp labels.
A carotenoid, which – like lutein – concentrates in the lens and retina, and exerts protective effects against age-related macular degeneration and cataract formation. Zeaxanthin is found with lutein in dark green leafy vegetables and (also like lutein), has no pro-vitamin A activity.
See the Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center for more information.
An alkaloid derived from periwinkle that affects cerebral blood flow, memory and learning. Vinpocetine is often added to pre-workout, stimulant blends designed to improve focus, concentration and training drive.
For more information, see “A Review of Nutrients and Botanicals in the Integrative Management of Cognitive Dysfunction” in the Alternative Medicine Review.
Also known as 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. Theobromine is structurally related to caffeine, and is one of the metabolites formed when caffeine is metabolized in the body. Theobromine is the primary alkaloid in chocolate/cocoa and also has stimulant effects, but is less potent than caffeine.
See “The Chemistry of Theobromine” for more information.