Also known as Aplodan. Creatinol-o-phosphate (COP) is a creatine analog added to certain bodybuilding supplements as it has the potential to a) be converted to creatine; b) act as a source of phosphate to regenerate creatine; and/or c) function as an alternate source of phosphate for the regeneration of ATP. Animal and human studies in the late 1970’s – early 1980’s demonstrated COP has protective effects on the heart, but this has not been followed up on…research is largely dormant.
See the Aplodan review for more information.
An intermediate in creatine synthesis. It’s included in certain creatine transport supplements as it represents an additional pathway for increasing creatine storage in muscle tissue. It also has hypoglycemic effects, and may be able to enhance creatine uptake in muscle without a sugar-mediated insulin spike.
Glycocyamine is a questionable addition as it can also increase homocysteine (a risk factor for cardiovascular disease), compete with creatine transporters and cause seizures in larger amounts. While probably not hazardous in the amounts used in most supplements, there is no human data to justify its use.
See Elissa’s blog post: “Ingredient Watch: Glycocyamine” for more information. David Tolson also has an informative summary: “Glycocyamine and Health.”
The compound responsible for the pungency of black pepper. Piperine may have anti-depressant and anti-tumor effects, although the primary reason for its use in supplements is different…Piperine can enhance the intestinal absorption of a number of different compounds and drugs; as well as inhibit drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver – as a consequence, piperine can enhance the bioavailability of drugs and nutraceutical compounds administered with it.
A bioactive compound in “Stinging Nettle” (Urtica dioica) used in certain bodybuilding/testosterone-boosting supplements. In-vitro research has shown it can bind tightly to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), so theoretically, it has the potential to increase bioavailable (free) testosterone. There are no human—or even animal—studies, however, so at this point, the ability of oral -(-)3, 4-Divanillyltetrahydrofuran to enhance free testosterone is purely speculative.