P-T - Page 2 of 11 - Glossary

Trehalose

Also known as mycose.  Trehalose is a disaccharide found in mushrooms, insects, other fungi, plants and bacteria.  It consists of 2 glucose units linked together by an alpha 1-1 glucoside bond.  Trehalose digests more slowly than many other dietary sugars, and has a moderate glycemic index. Trehalose is used largely as a cryopreservative and food additive, as it’s hygroscopic and enhances the stability of proteins.  Trehalose...

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Palatinose

Also known as isomaltulose.  A disaccharide derived from sucrose, palatinose is a fully-digestible carbohydrate with a low glycemic index.  It’s considered GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the FDA, and is increasingly used as an alternative, “tooth-friendly” sugar in various foods, meal replacement products and sports...

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Propionyl-L-Carnitine

A carnitine derivative with therapeutic applications for cardiovascular disease(s). Human clinical trials indicate propionyl-l-carnitine can improve exercise capacity in patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease. It may also have uses for improving erectile dysfunction and other disorders. One (animal) study also suggests it could be useful for reducing hyperinsulinemia and body...

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Polyrachis Ant Extract

An extract from a type of edible ant (Polyrachis vicina) that’s used in traditional Chinese medicine to enhance virility and fertility, as well as boost the immune system and act as an overall restorative/rejuvenator.  Needless to state, there are no studies to verify this, although dried ant powder is pretty nutritious.  Ant extract is used as an ingredient in certain bodybuilding supplements; it was also used as an ingredient in one...

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Pycnogenol®

A proprietary French maritime pine bark extract manufactured by Horphag Research. For more details, see “Pycnogenol Review &...

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Pine Bark Extract

An extract from French maritime pine bark containing proanthocyanidins (also known as “procyanidin oligomers” or PCOs). Pine bark extract is a potent antioxidant and has been shown to enhance nitric oxide (NO) production and vasodilation in animal and human experiments.  It also appears to be an effective treatment for chronic venous insufficiency and diabetic retinopathy.  Anti-inflammatory, glucose lowering,...

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